Digital Transformation Overview

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There has been a significantly increased attention to addressing different technological and organizational aspects of digital transformation since the introduction of the “Industries 4.0” program in Germany in 2011 (Tirabeni et al., 2019). Followed by other European countries in the next year and then other nations worldwide, digital transformation is currently known as the “Fourth Industrial Revolution” (Manesh et al., 2020).

In general, “digital transformation” can be defined as the process by that companies adopt digital technologies to transform existing traditional and non-digital processes, products, services, and operations, as well as organizational structure, management practices, and strategies to meet changing business and market requirements (Nambisan et al., 2019; Reis et al., 2018). Types of digital technologies such as cloud computing, machine learning, augmented reality, virtual reality, artificial intelligence, the internet of things, the fourth industrial revolution, big data, cyber security, and blockchain (Isensee et al., 2020; Nadkarni & Prügl, 2021; Nambisan et al., 2019).


Isensee, C., Teuteberg, F., Griese, K.-M., & Topi, C. (2020). The relationship between organizational culture, sustainability, and digitalization in SMEs: A systematic review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 275, 122944.

Manesh, M. F., Pellegrini, M. M., Marzi, G., & Dabic, M. (2020). Knowledge management in the fourth industrial revolution: Mapping the literature and scoping future avenues. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 68(1), 289-300.

Nadkarni, S., & Prügl, R. (2021). Digital transformation: a review, synthesis and opportunities for future research. Management Review Quarterly, 71(2), 233-341.

Nambisan, S., Wright, M., & Feldman, M. (2019). The digital transformation of innovation and entrepreneurship: Progress, challenges and key themes. Research Policy, 48(8), 103773.

Reis, J., Amorim, M., Melão, N., & Matos, P. (2018). Digital transformation: a literature review and guidelines for future research. In Trends and Advances in Information Systems and Technologies. WorldCIST’18 2018. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (Vol. 745, pp. 411-421).

Tirabeni, L., De Bernardi, P., Forliano, C., & Franco, M. (2019). How can organisations and business models lead to a more sustainable society? A framework from a systematic review of the industry 4.0. Sustainability, 11(22), 6363.